The history of gastric sleeve surgery dates back several surgical procedures. Rather a single procedure, it has turned into a separate operation over time. The origin of gastric sleeve surgery is based on the earliest observations of the results of gastroplasty and anti-reflux surgery.

1979 – Sleeve Gastrectomy-Scopinaro BPD operation was modified and defined as the first stage of the BPD/DS operation.

The gastric sleeve surgery was first performed as an open surgery by Doug Hess in March 1988 at Bowling Green, Ohio. It was a stage of the Duodenal Switch Surgery.[1] Lawrence L. Tretbar indicated the occurrence of fundoplication-related weight loss in reflux surgery. According to Lawrence L. Tretbar, the occurrence of tubular structure had led to lose weight as an effect of fundoplication. [2] In a series that includes 20 surgeries, the patients were followed between 1 and 16 months. After 16 months, weights were changing between 7 and 25 kilograms.[3]

1988 – BPD/DS performed for the first time by Dr. Hess.

Dr. Hess expanded the plication lengthwise or vertical in order to adapt to gastrectomy using the tubular stomach procedure. This gastrectomy procedure was made for leaving the first part of the duodenum (near the stomach of the intestine) to resolve problems such as dumping syndrome and marginal ulcers after the biliopancreatic diversion. The reason of this was remaining of intact pylorus (part of the intestine) and an anastomosis in the intestine rather than an anastomosis between the gastrointestinal tract.[4]

In 1997, Gary Anthone performed open duodenal switch surgery on a 13-year-old girl with a stone in her biliary tract. The surgeon, who was unable to completely empty the biliary tract during the operation, decided to limit the operation to the open sleeve gastrectomy in order to leave open the access for endoscopic surgery (ERCP). After this operation, gastric sleeve surgery was performed from 1997 to 2001 on 21 high-risk patients who were super morbidly obese. It has been observed that these people have successfully lost weight.[5]

In 1999, Gagner performed the duodenal switch operation for the first time on a pig using a laparoscopic (closed) method.[6] The laparoscopic method was deemed suitable for the sleeve gastrectomy part of the procedure. Gagner continued to perform duodenal switch operations in the closed method, but he noted a high rate of complications in patients who have high BMI (Body Mass Index).[7] Then he developed the intestinal bypass procedure by performing a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. From 2001 to 2003, seven patients whose BMI was 58 kg/m2 to 71 kg/m2 had sleeve gastrectomy surgery in the first phase, and then it was followed by the Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass. [8]  This provided a safe situation for the second stage gastric bypass and allowed the patients to lose weight in the first stage. These preliminary results quickly became popular as a safe laparoscopic option for patients who had high BMI levels.

Soon after that, many clinics began performing sleeve gastrectomy and bariatric surgery laparoscopically. Sleeve gastrectomy and bariatric surgery have been widely used day after day because of the remarkable results in treating obesity, low complication rate, and positive short, medium, and long-term results.

1.  Hess DS, Hess DW, Biliopancreatic Diversion with a duodenal switch, Obes. Surg. 1998;8:267–282.

2.  DeMeester TR, Fuchs KH, Ball CS, et al. Experimental and clinical results with proximal end-to-end duodeno-jejunostomy for pathologic duodenogastric reflux, Ann Surg. 1987;206:414–424.

3.  Tretbar LL, Taylor TL, Sifer EC. Weight reduction. Gastric placation for morbid obesity, J Kans Med Soc. 1976;77(11):488–490.

4.  Almogy G, Crookes PF, Anthone GJ, Longitudinal gastrectomy as a treatment for the high-risk super-obese patient. Obes Surg. 2004;14:492–497.

5.  Hamoui H, Anthone GJ, Kaufman HS, Crookes PF, Sleeve gastrectomy in the high-risk patient, Obes Surg. 2006;16:1445–1449.

6.  DeCsepel J, Burpee S, Jossart GJ, et al., Laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion with a duodenal switch for morbid obesity: a feasibility study in pigs, J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2001;11(2):79–83.

7.  Kim WW, Gagner M, Kini S, et al., Laparoscopic vs. open biliopancreatic diversion with a duodenal switch: a comparative study, J Gastrointest Surg. 2003;7(4):552–557.

8.  Regan JP, Inabnet WB, Gagner M., Early experience with two-stage laparoscopic roux-en-Y gastric bypass as an alternative in the super-super obese patient, Obes Surg. 2003;13:861–864